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1) Théorie de la Bipédie Initiale, Theory of Initial Bipedalism, Die Theorie der URSPRÜNGLICHEN ZWEIFÜSSIGKEIT Théorie de la Bipédie Initiale, Theory of Initial Bipedalism, Die Theorie der URSPRÜNGLICHEN ZWEIFÜSSIGKEIT
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BIPEDIA n° 10




LES BREVES :
-samedi 28 novembre
Ardipithecus : le singe descend de l’homme !
-vendredi 27 novembre
Le singe descend de l’homme

VENDREDI 27 JUIN 2003
BIPEDIA 10.1
IN SEARCH FOR TAXONOMY AND RELATIONSHIPS IN THE VERTEBRATES,
in connection with the Marine Homonculus hypothesis
par François de Sarre
Carl von Linné was called "the father of taxonomy", i.e. the science whose purpose is to classify the living forms, to categorise them into classes, orders and genera. The well-known Swedish naturalist made an attempt ( in his Systema Naturae, 1758 ) to base his classification of animals and plants on features which can easily be established. The criterion first retained for the arrangement in the groups was that of an increasing complexity in organic structures. Linné’s model was a static one, without any evolutionary implication. Man, who was placed in this system beside the apes in the order of Primates, was not said to have descended from a common Simian ancestor to both the monkeys and the genus Homo. The Linnean taxonomy was resumed as a whole by scientists like Maupertuis, Buffon, Lamarck, Darwin and above all, by Ernst Haeckel, the author of the famous phylogenetic trees ( 1868 ). The ordinary classification of the animals and the plants, previously looked upon as a register of names or as an index, was considered from then on as a genealogical affinity table of the several classes ( Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Fishes ) which formed the Vertebrates’ groups. The classes, orders, and genera corresponded to the boughs, branches and sprays of the big tree of the living Vertebrates’ forms. So Haeckel actually put all the Vertebrates into on row in graduating process going from the very beginning of the first forms of Fish up to the Mammals, going through the Amphibians as well as the Reptiles. This phylogenetic model was established, too, in order to give Man the advantage of becoming the final state of evolution, "the finest jewel in the crown", according to the current philosophical tendencies, and in full respect of the Darwinist dogma. The aim of the present article is to suggest the idea of a revision of the Vertebrates’ taxonomy, at the daylight of the newest data in modern science and through the theoretical and plausible framework of a supposed original bipedalism among Vertebrates. Our usual sight of view in classifying the groups of Vertebrates badly needs an entire revision We must progressively free ourselves from the traditional habits in taxonomic science, left to posterity since more than two centuries. Just as it was the case only a few decades ago with the worms ( Vermes, a group now splitted in several non-related taxons ). Of course, since we have been talking of Vertebrates, and no longer of worms, it has been touching the right spot, our sensitive one. The evolutionary model called Initial Bipedalism Theory suggesting that the first Mammals were bipeds and issued from Amphibian stages, as well as the author’s personal Marine Homonculus Hypothesis of a bipedal and big-brained pre-Vertebrate once entering land allow us to cast a new tight upon the Vertebrates classification and their relationships. Thus, we will obtain a natural taxonomy of their different groups, in which Man undoubtedly is a masterly bit. It is, of course, not my purpose, in the restricted framework of this article, to submit a newly revised complete system to the reader. It would be a lot of work taking many years and the co-operation of many other researchers. Only the way to prosecute will here be indicated.


VENDREDI 27 JUIN 2003
BIPEDIA 10.2
LES NEANDERTHALIENS RELIQUES,
DES PYRENEES AU PAKISTAN
par Michel Raynal
interest in Wild Men research has increased with the publication of the first results of field investigations in N. Pakistan by zoologist Jordi Magraner. He collected 27 highly accurate and reliable reports on the bar-manu ( the Wild Man of the Chitral district ), by using a very rigorous protocol. The article draws attention on the striking resemblance between the bar-manu present sightings and the Pyrenean and Hispanic lore on the Wild Man reviewed in previous Bipedia articles. The case for Neanderthal survival is discussed from anatomy, ethology and linguistics.

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